Accurate Plastics ~ Thermoset Plastics Laminating Processes
As an innovative manufacturer of laminated thermoset plastics, Accurate Plastics has maintained its lead in the manufacture of industrial laminates by incorporating technological innovation into the improvement of our product manufacturing process. Industrial laminates are made by combining thermosetting resin binders (phenolic, epoxy, melamine, silicone, etc). with reinforcing base materials (canvas, linen, glass, paper, graphite, Kevlar ®, etc). For a brief overview of the manufacturing process, please review the information below.
The Thermoset Plastic Manufacturing Process
Thermoset plastic industrial laminates are identified in process by three stages: A, B and C.
A-stage refers to the key raw materials described earlier - reinforcing substrates and resin binders.
B-stage refers to the product produced when reinforcing substrates and resin binders are brought together but not fully cured. The reinforcing substrate is unwound from a large master roll and dipped into a bath of liquefied resin binder. The reinforcing substrate becomes either saturated, as is the case with absorbent papers and cotton cloths, or coated, as is the case with glass and graphite cloths. Once the wet resin binder is joined with the reinforcing substrate in this method, it is slowly drawn through a long conveyorized oven where the liquefied resin binder is dried (see sketch below). The result leaves dry semi-cured resin bind in and/or on the reinforcing substrate. Once joined and dried in this fashion, the product is referred to as B-stage or prepreg, and the process described is called B-staging, prepreging or treating.
C-stage refers to sheet, rod, tube, angle or other in their "cured stage".
Sheets - B-stage is sheeted into plies then laid on top of each other into predetermined stacks that will render a given thickness. These stacks are placed into the hydraulic laminating press between two flat surfaces and pressure is applied. While under pressure, heat is introduced to begin the bake cycle. The resin in the B-stage product is re-activated by the heat to a sticky state which moves slowly, filling and bonding the layers together until it eventually hardens and cures. Once plies bond to each other and cure, they are referred to as C-stage laminate sheet and the process described is called laminating or pressing.
Rods - The B-stage is convolutely wrapped under tension onto itself, much like a roll of paper towels is wound. Once the B-stage is rolled to form a rod, it is placed into a laminating press which has upper and lower half round mold cavities. When the two half round molds close and meet each other, a full round is formed. The size of the mold cavity determines the diameter of the finished rod. Once pressure is applied, the layers are pressed together filling all voids. Similar pressures and heat cycles employed for making sheet are used. When the layers bond to each other and cure, they are referred to as C-stage laminate rod or rolled and molded rod.
Tubes - Rolling tubes is nearly identical to rolling rods with the exception that a steel rod called a mandrel is employed to size and form the inside diameter of the tube. B-stage rolled tubes are usually placed into an oven chamber as opposed to a press. Tube bake cycles compare to those of sheet and rod. Once cured, the center mandrel is extracted. The final cured product is referred to as C-stage laminate tube or rolled tube.
Angles - This process is nearly identical to that of sheets except the mold cavities are "V" shaped rather than flat surfaces. The final cured product is referred to as C-stage laminate angle or molded angle.
Other shapes - Once cured, the end product is referred to as C-stage.
Thermosetting Resins (Resin Binders)
Others - Polyimide
Base Materials (Reinforcing Substrates)
Woven (Cotton) Canvas fabric
Woven (Cotton) Linen fabric
Non-Woven (Saturating) Paper
Woven (Fiberglas) Glass fabric
Others - Graphite, Kevlar®, etc.
Contact Accurate Plastics for Thermoset Plastic Process Information
For additional information about Accurate Plastics, and our Products and Services, please give us a call at 800.431.2274 for information about your specific application. If you would like to submit a question online, please use our Request for Information/Quote form.